compliance

CFTC Expands Swap Clearing Requirement

 

On September 28, 2016, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) unanimously approved the expansion of currencies of interest rate swaps subject to mandatory clearing under the U.S. Commodity Exchange Act (the “Act”).[1]  Subjecting standardized swaps to central clearing is intended to decrease risk in the financial system and has been a primary goal of global regulators for several years.

Section 2(h) of the Act makes it unlawful for any person to engage in a swap that is required to be centrally cleared unless that swap is submitted to a derivatives clearing organization (a “DCO”) that is either registered under the Act or exempt from registration under the Act.[2]  This same section of the Act sets forth the process through which the CFTC is to make determinations of whether a swap, or group, category, type or class of swaps should be subject to mandatory clearing.[3] READ MORE

SEC Amends Rules on Security-Based Swap Reporting

On July 13, 2016, the Securities Exchange Commission (“SEC”) approved certain amendments and guidance to the rules governing the reporting and public dissemination of security-based swaps (“SBS”), known as “Regulation SBSR,”[1] which were adopted in February 2015.  The amendments and guidance are intended to increase transparency in the SBS market.

Generally, Regulation SBSR provides for the reporting of SBS information to registered security-based swap data repositories (“SBSDRs”), as well as the public dissemination of SBS transaction data. The amendments and guidance address certain open issues in the Regulation SBSR adopting release, and also clarify how Regulation SBSR would apply to SBS activity engaged in by non-U.S. persons within the United States. READ MORE

ISDA Publishes 2016 Variation Margin Credit Support Annex (NY Law)

On April 14, 2016, the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (“ISDA”) published the 2016 Variation Margin Credit Support Annex (New York Law) (the “2016 VM Annex (NY)”). The purpose of this document is to facilitate compliance with margin requirements for non-cleared derivatives scheduled to be phased in shortly in the United States.[1]

In the United States, by the end of 2015, both the prudential regulators[2] and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) had approved final rules generally imposing initial margin and variation margin requirements on certain regulated entities and their counterparties in connection with non-cleared derivatives.[3]  These rules incorporate compliance dates that depend on the type of margin (initial or variation),[4] the types of counterparties and, generally, the volume of transactions entered into by the counterparties.  The first of these compliance dates, which applies to trades between the largest derivatives users, is September 1, 2016.  Specifically, beginning on this date, the final rules impose initial margin and variation margin requirements where both the registered swap dealer or other entity subject to regulation (combined with its affiliates) and the counterparty (combined with its affiliates) have an average daily aggregate notional amount of non-cleared swaps, non-cleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps (“covered swaps”) for March, April, and May of 2016 exceeding $3 trillion.

The collateral calculation and transfer mechanics of the 2016 VM Annex (NY) are fairly similar to those in existing credit support annexes published by ISDA, including the standard 1994 ISDA Credit Support Annex (New York law) (the “Existing NY Annex”).  However, under the 2016 VM Annex (NY), the only transactions under an ISDA Master Agreement that are relevant for purpose of determining “Exposure” (generally, the mid-market estimate of what would be paid or received for replacement transactions to outstanding transactions) are to be specified by the parties as “Covered Transactions” in the Paragraph 13 to the 2016 VM Annex (NY).  Moreover, initial margin (known as “Independent Amount” in the Existing NY Annex) is not relevant for purposes of the 2016 VM Annex (NY), although such margin may be calculated and collected pursuant to another credit support annex or similar document (defined in the 2016 VM Annex (NY) as an “Other CSA”).  Similarly, the concept of a threshold of uncollateralized exposure (known as “Threshold” in the Existing NY Annex) is not relevant for purposes of the 2016 VM Annex (NY).

The 2016 VM Annex (NY) also tightens the timing for collateral transfers by one business day.  For example, if a collateral call is made by the “Notification Time” specified by the parties, then transfer of any delivery amount by the pledgor must be made by the close of business on the same business day (as opposed to by the close of business on the next business day under the Existing NY Annex).

Moreover, the 2016 VM Annex (NY) allows parties to address negative interest rate environments by agreeing to make “Negative Interest” applicable.  If the parties do not agree to make “Negative Interest” applicable and a negative interest amount is calculated on collateral posted in the form of cash for an interest period, then there is no interest payable by either party on the posted cash.

The 2016 VM Annex (NY) also allows parties to offset transfers of credit support due under the 2016 VM Annex (NY) against transfers of credit support due on the same date under any Other CSA, provided that the credit support items are fully fungible and are not segregated in an account maintained by a third party custodian or for which offsets are prohibited, by specifying that “Credit Support Offsets” is applicable.

Among other changes, the 2016 VM Annex (NY) also includes a mechanism by which posted collateral is deemed to have a value of zero if the secured party provides written notice to the pledgor in which, inter alia, the secured party represents that it has determined that one or more items of eligible credit support under the agreement has ceased to satisfy (or will cease to satisfy) collateral eligibility requirements under law applicable to the secured party requiring the collection of variation margin.


[1] This Client Alert focuses exclusively on U.S. regulatory requirements and compliance dates.

[2] The prudential regulators are the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Farm Credit Administration, and the Federal Housing Finance Agency.

[3] See Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Participants, 81 Fed. Reg. 636 (January 2, 2016); Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities, 80 Fed. Reg. 74,840 (November 30, 2015).  For a summary of these final rules, please click here. European Union and Japanese regulators published their final rules in March 2016.

[4] Note that ISDA has been developing a “standard initial margin model” (“SIMM”), which is a standardized method for calculating initial margin on uncleared swaps.  Using a standard framework to calculate initial margin is expected to reduce the potential for disputes. The SIMM was discussed in a previous Derivatives in Review posting (available here).