The UK will no longer be a Member State of the European Union (the “EU”) as of 11 p.m. on 31 January 2020 (“Exit Day”). A ‘transition period’ will run from Exit Day until 11 p.m. on 31 December 2020 (the “Transition Period”).
The Competition and Markets Authority (“CMA”) has published a guidance document explaining how Brexit, or “EU Exit,” will affect its ‘powers and processes’ for competition law enforcement (antitrust, including cartels), merger control and consumer protection law enforcement during, towards the end of and after the Transition Period (the “Guidance”). The Guidance also explains how ‘live’ mergers and ‘live’ antitrust cases being reviewed by the European Commission (the “Commission”) or the CMA during and at the end of the Transition Period will be treated.
In this post, we provide an overview of the key takeaways in relation to merger control and antitrust.
The implications of EU Exit on merger control need to be considered during three different periods: (i) during the Transition Period; (ii) towards the end of the Transition Period; and (iii) after the end of the Transition Period.
- During the Transition Period: The ‘one-stop shop’ principle will continue to apply. When considering whether the merger control thresholds under the EU Merger Regulation (“EUMR”) are met, the turnover generated by an undertaking in the UK will still need to be included. The CMA will not open an investigation into a transaction unless jurisdiction has been transferred to it under the EUMR’s referral mechanisms. The UK courts and the Competition Appeal Tribunal will not have jurisdiction to review decisions of the Commission or the UK-related aspects of these decisions.
- Towards the end of the Transition Period: The Commission will retain jurisdiction over transactions that have been formally notified to it before the end of the Transition Period or if it has accepted referral requests under the EUMR (or the deadline for Member States to disagree to the request has expired (Article 4(5) of the EUMR)). If the Commission’s clearance decision in a particular case is subject to commitments, the Commission will continue to be responsible for monitoring and enforcing all aspects of these commitments, including any aspects relating to the UK, irrespective of whether the commitments have been agreed before the end of the Transition Period. However, the Commission and the CMA can agree to transfer responsibility for the monitoring and enforcement of the UK aspects of any commitments to the CMA.
- Following the end of Transition Period: The ‘one-stop shop’ principle will no longer apply. The turnover generated in the UK will no longer be relevant for determining whether the jurisdictional thresholds under the EUMR are met. Parallel investigations (i.e. investigations by the Commission and the CMA) can take place with regards to transactions that meet the thresholds under the EUMR and the Enterprise Act 2002. The Commission will continue to be able to investigate the effects in the UK of transactions over which it had already exercised jurisdiction (i.e. because the transaction had been notified during the Transition Period or referral requests were accepted).
As with merger control, the implications for antitrust enforcement should be considered during three different periods: (i) during the Transition Period; (ii) towards the end of the Transition Period; and (iii) after the end of the Transition Period.
- During the Transition Period: Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (“TFEU”) will have full force and effect in the UK in addition to the domestic Chapter I and Chapter II prohibitions. Regulation 1/2003, the EU block exemption Regulations and EU guidance will also continue to be applicable. The Commission will continue to have the power to enforce and investigate suspected infringements of Articles 101 and 102 TFEU in relation to the UK. If the Commission has initiated an investigation into a suspected breach of either Article 101 or Article 102, the CMA and concurrent (sector) regulators in the UK will not be able to launch a parallel investigation. In the event that commitments have been accepted by the Commission before or during the Transition Period, the Commission will continue to have the responsibility for monitoring and enforcement of the UK-related aspects of these commitments. Infringements of EU law are relevant to the disqualification of directors for competition law infringements. This will continue to be the case during the Transition Period.
- Towards the end of the Transition Period: The Commission will retain jurisdiction over cases in relation to which it has formally initiated proceedings before the end of the Transition Period. However, the CMA and the concurrent regulators may be able to obtain jurisdiction over such cases. For instance, if the agreement or conduct under investigation affects trade within the UK and are ongoing at the end of the Transition Period, the CMA or concurrent regulators may investigate facts post-dating the Transition Period. Further guidance will be issued concerning the applicable procedure. If the CMA and the concurrent regulators are investigating conduct that may affect trade between EU Member States and have not issued a decision before the end of the Transition Period and the case is ongoing, Articles 101 and 102 TFEU will no longer be applied.
- Following the end of Transition Period: After the end of the Transition Period, the CMA and the concurrent regulators will only investigate suspected infringements of the Chapter I and Chapter II prohibitions. The Commission will continue to have responsibility for monitoring and enforcing the UK aspects of commitments given or remedies imposed; however, there is an option under the Withdrawal Agreement for this responsibility to be transferred to the CMA and concurrent regulators by ‘mutual agreement.’ Further guidance will be issued concerning the applicable procedure. It is expected that company director disqualification orders will also concern conduct found to have infringed Articles 101 and 102 TFEU during the Transition Period. The EU block exemption Regulations are ‘retained exemptions.’ As such, after the Transition Period, exemptions will operate as exemptions from domestic prohibitions. The Secretary of State, acting in consultation with the CMA, will have the power to vary or revoke the application of the retained exemptions. Businesses entering into agreements after the end of the Transition Period will be able to benefit from the retained exemptions provided they meet the relevant criteria.
The CMA considers the Guidance to be a ‘live’ document subject to change “in light of further political and legal developments.”